Course title
Contemporary Society: Changes in Japanese Work Culture

Course description
This course is conducted completely in English.
This course focuses on changes in Japanese work culture within international context.
We will start by defining concepts of work & work culture, and study a brief history of how concepts of work in Japan changed from the Edo period’s social class system, through the Meiji period’s industrialization and modernization, and into the 20th century's postwar high growth period.
From this base of understanding the expectations within traditional modern Japanese company systems (such as lifetime employment, seniority system, hierarchy, identifying with one organization, and gendered division of labor), we will analyze recent changing expectations in individuals and organizations regarding:
diversity, work environment, work flow, inter-generational & international team communication, motivation, work/life balance, and remote working.
We hope guest speakers from various industries will join us for 20-30 minute interviews online during the second half of the course, depending on their availability.
Weekly readings, participation in discussion, short response papers, mid-term presentation on a historical topic, outside fieldwork, and final fieldwork/research presentation are required.
The professor has experience as an Executive Coach, Management Trainer & Team Communication Consultant in business in Tokyo as well as researching work culture as a Professor of Social History.
Purpose of class
This course is designed to help students from a variety of backgrounds understand the development and changes in key concepts, values, and behaviors expected in Japanese work cultures in modern history and contemporary society. After completing this course students should have a deeper understanding of both the history and recent changes in work culture in Japan and should be well-prepared to work in or deal with Japanese organizations in their future careers.
Goals and objectives

Goals and objectives Course Outcomes
1. Students will be able to understand the historical basis of key concepts regarding work in Japanese society from the four main economic classes in the Edo period to the present and changes in those concepts over time including remaining traditions such as hierarchy in communication, focus on craftsmanship & precision, and one identity.
2. Students will be able to understand & assess remnants of the high growth era’s pillars of Japanese employment: the trade-offs expected in lifetime employment, seniority system for promotion & salaries, enterprise-based in-company identity & unions, gendered division of labor, one main identity, status divide between management-track, full-time employees and short-term contract, part-time, and other workers.
3. Students will be able to analyze expectations in Japanese organizational behavior and styles of communication related to status, time, and division of labor (by gender, age, geography, educational background, type of contract), and be able to develop strategies for handling those expectations.
4. Students will be able to compare and contrast Japanese and international interpretations of 21st century trends in: work/life balance, work/life integration, diversity & inclusion, remote work, “freetahs” freelance workers & temporary workers, downsizing, application of robotics/ algorithms/ & limited AI, start-up businesses, multinational corporate M&A, and assess how these policies and trends affect the lives of working people.
Class schedule

Class schedule HW assignments (Including preparation and review of the class.) Amount of Time Required
1. Intro. to Course
Intro. to Cultural Studies & Approaches to Japanese Studies
What is work? What is culture? What is Japanese? What is the work culture “map”?
Reading & discussion prep 90分
Review 30分
2. Concept of Work Culture
Stereotypes of Japanese Society & Work Culture
Edo Period Work Culture – 4 classes, division of labor, communication: 1-level up / down, city & countryside
Hierarchy in communication
Focus on local/ regional craftsmanship & precision
Reading & discussion prep 120分
Project prep 120分
3. Zoom in on Edo work and life

End of Tokugawa Era & Beginning of Modern Japan “Bakumatsu” & “Meiji Isshin”(revolution)
Discontent in provinces, Response to foreign threat & stimulation: Using the barbarian to control to the barbarian & "catching" up with industrialization
Example: “Choshu 5" study in the UK
Student Presentations
Reading & discussion prep 120分
Project prep 120分
4. Meiji Transformation:
Modernization: Standardization, Industrialization, Militarization
National Education system
Government-Industry Relations
Innovation from mid-level associations in provinces
Division of Labor: female factory workers
Student Presentations
Reading & discussion prep 90分
Project prep 120分
5. Roots of Modern J. Company Culture 1880s - 1940s:
Creation of company culture & "salaryman"
Rise of the “zaibatsu” group companies
Student Presentations
Reading & discussion prep 90分
Project prep 90分
6. War & Immediate Postwar
Militarized Economy, Self-Sacrifice
Postwar: 1945-1964: from Survival toward Prosperity
Labor Movement
Student Presentations
Presentation prep 180分
7. High Growth Period 1960s-1980s
Classic Japanese Company Style:
Pillars of Japanese Employment
One organizational identity
Student Presentations
Reading & discussion prep 60分
Project prep 60分
8. From "Bubble Era" to "Job Hunting Ice Age" to Contract Employment
Recruiting & Hiring Processes
Rise of "freetah," freelancers, part-time workers, short term contract employment
Reading & discussion prep 90分
Fieldwork/ project prep 120分
9. 21st Century Trends
"In Japan Diversity Means 'Women' ":
Hiring & Promoting Women for Mgt.
The Continued Gendered Division of Labor
Final Fieldwork Plan & Presentation Schedule discussed
Reading & discussion prep 60分
Fieldwork/ project prep 180分
10. 21st Century Trends
Being “International”
Post-Lehman Shock: Retreat from foreign companies ? Multinational M&A
Employment of foreigners

Interviews with international employees in Japan
Reading & discussion prep 60分
Fieldwork/ project prep 180分
11. 21st Century Trends
Interviews & updates from Japanese professionals
Reading & discussion prep 60分
Fieldwork/ project prep 180分
12. From one identity to multiple identities
Work/Life Balance, Work/Life Integration

Responding to disasters & "risk society"
Remote work
Trends & Counter-trends
Responses to Interviews with Japanese professionals
Reading & discussion prep 60分
Fieldwork/ project prep 210分
13. Student Fieldwork / Research Presentations
Feedback & Discussion
Fieldwork/ project prep 90分
14. Student Fieldwork / Research Presentations
Feedback & Discussion
Final discussion of the future of work in Japanese society
Fieldwork/ project prep 70分
15. (This is a 14 week course. There is no 15th week.) 0分
Total. - - 2650分
Relationship between 'Goals and Objectives' and 'Course Outcomes'

Homework, response papers, participation History Group Presentation Discussion & guest interview participation Final Presentation Total.
1. 5% 15% 0% 0% 20%
2. 5% 15% 0% 5% 25%
3. 0% 0% 5% 15% 20%
4. 0% 5% 30% 35%
5. 0% 0% 0% 0%
Total. 10% 30% 10% 50% -
Evaluation method and criteria
30% Group presentations on historical topics
50% Final presentation
10% Homework, short response papers, participation
10% Discussion & guest interview participation
In order to pass this course, students need to earn at least 60% of the total score for the course and pass the completed final project.
Feedback on exams, assignments, etc.
ways of feedback specific contents about "Other"
The Others Feedback given in class, after class, by e-mail, and during office hours if needed.
Textbooks and reference materials
No textbook is required for this course. Excerpts from:
Tsutsui J (2020) Work & Family in Japan
Social Change in Japan,1989-2019, (2021) eds. C Hommerich, N Sudo, et al
Sugimoto Y (2021) Introduction to Japanese Society
Japanese Women in Leadership (2021) eds.YT Nakamura, M Horimoto, et al
Ho SL (2018) Friendship & Work Culture of Women Managers in Japan
Kopp, S (2000) Rice-Paper Ceiling: Breaking through Japanese corporate culture
Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Japan (2021) eds. H Takeda et al
Reimagining Japan: The Quest for a Future that Works (2011), McKinsey
Japan in the Heisei Era,1989-2019: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2022) eds N. Murai, J, Kingston, et al
Mouer, R (2005) Sociology of work in Japan
Shell, ER (2018) The Job: Work & its future in a time of change
Genda, Y (2006) A Nagging Sense of Job Insecurity: The New Reality facing Japanese Youth
Iwabuchi, K (2015) Resilient borders & cultural diversity: Internationalism, brand nationalism, & multiculturalism in Japan
Gordon, A (2014) A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa to the Present
Yamaguchi, K (2019) Gender Inequalities in the Japanese Workplace & Employment: Theories & Empirical Evidence
Leupp, GP & DM Tao (2022) The Tokugawa World
Morris-Suzuki, T (1995) The Technological Transformation of Japan: From the 17th to the 21st Century
Gagne, NO (2019) Reworking Japan: Changing Men at work & play under neo-liberalism
Nakamura, J (2017) Japanese Firms during the lost two decades: The zombie firms & entrenchment of reputable firms
Fu, H (2012) An Emerging Non-regular Labour Force in Japan
Kosugi, R (2003) Escape from Work: Freelancing Youth & the Challenge to Corporate Japan
Ueno, C (2009/ 1994) The Modern Japanese Family: Its Rise and Fall
Japanese Social Theory: From individualization to globalization in Japan today (2020)
Internet sites.
Office hours and How to contact professors for questions
  • Office Hours: Thursday 15:00-16:00, & others to be announced
Regionally-oriented course
Development of social and professional independence
  • Course that cultivates an ability for utilizing knowledge
  • Course that cultivates a basic interpersonal skills
Active-learning course
Most classes are interactive
Course by professor with work experience
Work experience Work experience and relevance to the course content if applicable
Applicable Professor has over 12 years experience as a business communication consultant, management trainer, and executive coach for Japanese and international business clients.
Education related SDGs:the Sustainable Development Goals
Last modified : Sat Sep 09 07:16:55 JST 2023